The nose has rich blood supply and hence trauma or injury to the face may cause nasal injury and bleeding. Nose bleed or epistaxis is blood loss from the tissues lining the nose and commonly occurs in one nostril only. Excess blood loss leads to dizziness, weakness, confusion, and fainting.
Nose bleeds are of two types, anterior and posterior. Anterior nose bleed accounts for about 90% of nosebleeds and it comes from blood vessel of the nasal septum. Capillaries and very small blood vessels may break and bleeding occurs. Posterior nose bleed occurs from an artery in the back part of the nose. The blood can also flow back into the throat or down into the stomach causing the individual to vomit blood. This type of nose bleed more commonly occurs in elderly people.
The most common cause of nosebleeds is trauma to the outer part of the nose caused from direct blow on the nose or inside of the nose caused from nose picking. Other predisposing factors include nasal or sinus infection, allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, high blood pressure, deviated nasal septum, nasal blockage by foreign body, nasal surgery, exposure to dry air for a long time, blood thinning medicines, vigorous nose blowing, and rarely nasal tumours.
The following measures can help prevent nosebleeds: